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        [认知心理学] TrueNorth神经突触芯片综述

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        1#
        发表于 2016-9-30 12:39 | 只看该作者 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |阅读模式
        IBM的TrueNorth毫无疑问是未来的核心竞争力,之前我写过若干篇综述,但在当时看来离实用还很遥远的事情仅仅过了2年已经成为了眼前的现实。让我们来梳理下这个神经突触芯片的发展历程。2008年开始,美国国防部研究机构DARPA给了IBM 5300万美元。TrueNorth是IBM参与DARPA的研究项目SyNapse的最新成果。SyNapse全称是Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics(自适应可塑可伸缩电子神经系统,而SyNapse正好是突触的意思),其终极目标是开发出打破冯?诺依曼体系的硬件。
        这种芯片把数字处理器当作神经元,把内存作为突触,跟传统冯诺依曼结构不一样,它的内存、CPU和通信部件是完全集成在一起。因此信息的处理完全在本地进行,而且由于本地处理的数据量并不大,传统计算机内存与CPU之间的瓶颈不复存在了。同时神经元之间可以方便快捷地相互沟通,只要接收到其他神经元发过来的脉冲(动作电位),这些神经元就会同时做动作。
        2011年的时候,IBM首先推出了单核含256 个神经元,256×256 个突触和 256 个轴突的芯片原型。当时的原型已经可以处理像玩Pong游戏这样复杂的任务。不过相对来说还是比较简单,从规模上来说,这样的单核脑容量仅相当于虫脑的水平。
        到了2014年,IBM终于在复杂性和使用性方面取得了突破。4096个内核,100万个“神经元”、2.56亿个“突触”集成在直径只有几厘米的方寸(是2011年原型大小的1/16)。

        到了2016年,做到只有邮票大小、重量只有几克,但却集成了54亿个硅晶体管,内置了4096个内核,100万个“神经元”、2.56亿个“突触”,能力相当于一台超级计算机,功耗却只有65毫瓦。相比其他动则数百W的GPU运算支持的深度学习,IBM能够将功耗做得这么????说实话我还没有理解是什么原理。
        IBM介绍称,TrueNorth处理器可以给图片数据分类,每秒速度1200-2600帧,能耗25-275毫瓦。处理器还能够识别图片模式,这些图片是50-100个摄像头以每秒24帧的速度拍摄的。

        这些芯片装进一台名叫NS16e的计算机,该计算机的运行原理与人脑类似。利用神经网络,NS16e能够识别图像、语音、模式。NS16e建有“数字神经元”,但是数量比人脑少得多。IBM系统安装了16颗TrueNorth芯片,每一颗有100万个神经元,突触数量2.56亿个,彼此用电路连结在一起。NS16e也有内存、计算通信子系统,但是它们的设计方式与现有组件不同,IBM系统可以处理数据。跟传统计算机用FLOPS(每秒浮点运算次数)衡量计算能力一样,IBM使用SOP(每秒突触运算数)来衡量这种计算机的能力和能效。其完成460亿SOP所需的能耗仅为1瓦。
        2016年3月29日,美国劳伦斯.利佛莫尔国家实验室(LLNL)日前宣布购买了IBM研究院开发的基于TrueNorth神经突触芯片的同类首创类脑超级计算平台,用于执行深度学习推理任务。
        2016年9月10日,三星采用TrueNorth处理器推出机器视觉平台“动态视觉传感器”(Dynamic Vision Sensor;DVS),可让镜头更新率达到2,000fps,却只耗电300毫瓦。据说TrueNorth采用28纳米制程由三星代工制造。

        2016年9月29日,IBM也推出了基于人工智能大数据平台的一站式分析服务,Project  DataWorks 。IBM 表示,这将是第一个整合所有类型数据,并利用 AI 进行分析的大数据平台。目前,Project DataWorks 已经在 IBM 的云平台 Bluemix 上使用。该平台旨在促进各类对不同数据的处理有所需要的团队之间的合作。与其他数据平台相比,这项服务吸收数据的速度更快,可从 50 Gbps 提升到数百 Gbps,数据源包括企业数据库、物联网以及社交媒体等。用户可以在 Watson Analytics 上打开任何数据集,使用自然语言回答问题,比如“这款产品的驱动力是什么?”以前,这往往需要一个数据科学家手动查阅数以百计的材料才能找到答案,而 Watson Analytics 则可以让他们瞬间找到答案。Watson主要运用的是一种名为“假设生成”的算法。IBM同时宣布,计划收购咨询公司Promontory金融集团,并组建名为“沃森金融服务”新子公司。这笔交易的思路是将Promontory关于金融监管的专业性与IBM人工智能系统沃森进行结合,帮助银行完成日渐增多的监管要求,例如建设反洗钱检测系统,用户投诉数据库。结合2015年4月,IBM 宣布Watson Health成立向医疗领域进军,诸如Welltok这样的公司开始购买IBM的系统,虽然更多地是为了从风投拉一笔钱从产品上来看还很初级。但毫无疑问的是,IBM的股票将来会很值钱,因为IBM要把一切都Watson了。


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        2#
        发表于 2016-12-6 23:41 | 只看该作者
        收藏了,很高大上的样子!
        3#
        发表于 2016-12-14 11:22 | 只看该作者
        能看得懂吗
        4#
        发表于 2016-12-14 11:22 | 只看该作者
        能看得懂吗
        5#
        发表于 2017-1-5 23:20 | 只看该作者
        能看得懂吗
        6#
        发表于 2017-2-15 11:43 | 只看该作者
        看起来挺复杂的
        7#
        发表于 2017-11-1 08:42 | 只看该作者
        好神奇的~
        8#
        发表于 2017-12-9 19:33 | 只看该作者
        英文有人帮翻译下吗
        9#
        发表于 2018-12-10 17:49 | 只看该作者
        神经科学的发展将成为未来世界的主流
        10#
        发表于 2018-12-15 09:37 来自手机 | 只看该作者
        感谢楼主分享!好东西!
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